埃塞俄比亚-团结公园(Unity Park in Addis Ababa)

       Unity Park是一座位于亚的斯亚贝巴市中心于2019年10月建成开业的新公园。
       Unity中文翻译可以是团结,也可以是统一,我个人认为叫团结公园更符合国情。因为埃塞俄比亚已经是一个统一国家(厄特独立已经得到埃塞承认),现在更需要的是地方各州各民族更团结,像一个紧握的拳头,劲儿往一处使,力往一处用。公园的设计理念和展位主题也从不同角度显示出团结的主题,如公园的非洲地图加握拳形标识,如阐述犹太教、正教、本土信仰、伊斯兰教、新教等宗教在埃塞的发展史,如罗列古代皇帝、近代革命者、现代各总理对埃塞的贡献,如展出阿姆哈拉、奥罗莫、提格雷、索马里、古木兹等各民族传统民居和文化遗产。仔细观察,团结才是贯穿公园景观的主题。因此,中文译作团结公园更恰当。
       我们说各民族要像石榴子一样紧紧抱在一起,埃塞说各民族要像拳头一样紧紧握在一起。同样的思想,不同的表达。
亚的斯亚贝巴在阿姆哈拉语中意为“鲜花之城”,位于市中心的团结公园更是名副其实的花园。团结公园建立在埃塞俄比亚皇帝Menelik二世的皇宫旧址(建于1887年),公园现存修缮后的Menelik二世宫殿建筑群、大殿、宴会厅等古建筑,也包括黑狮公园、植物园、各地建筑展区和团结动物园等区域。
       UNITY means being united or joined as a whole.Why ethiopian govt. selects unity park as its name? Because unity will accelerate the development and modernization of the the country. The current rising separatism and conflicts based on ethnicity and religion (especially ethnicity) have hindered the development progress. The details of the design interprets UNITY from different perspectives, such as the tightly fist-shaped african map, the history of Judaism, Oriental Orthodox, Indigenous religion, Islam and Protestantism, the achievements by a succession of rulers, and the exhibition of pavilions and cultural relics of amhara, oromo, tigrayans, somali people etc. UNITY is the theme throughout the park.
       We chinese say that all ethnic groups could be together like seeds of a pomegranate, ethiopians say being together like a doubled fist. Different interpretations for the same idea.
       Addis Ababa means New Flower in Amharic and Unity Park located in the city is a real garden indeed. The Park is founded on the site of Grand Palace of Emperor Menelik II and consists of repaired Palace Complex, Throne Hall, Banquet Hall, Black Lion Zoo, Indigenous Plant, Regional Pavilions and Unity Zoo.
从工作地点到公园走路大约15分钟,沿途经过蓝花楹大道,可惜现在不是盛开的季节    ∨
       公园收费实行双轨制,埃塞公民仅需300比尔,外国人需780比尔(即使持有临时居住证),既可以在其官网在线购票,也支持现金购票。到目前为止,团结公园是我见过安检最严格的公园,没有之一。安检程度对标机场,甚至比机场更严格。我双肩包里随身携带的水、手电、指甲刀也只能寄存,不能进入。除手机以外的拍摄设备也不能进入。由于是疫情期间,安检前会被要求准备一小瓶酒精消毒液,幸好我随身携带了。进入公园后工作人员会递上一副游览地图,说明游览路线。然后就可以开始参观了。
门票    ∨

公园握拳型+非洲地图Logo,右边是入口小径,左边是出口道路    ∨

台阶尽头第一眼看到的标志  ∨
进入主要区域前的花和草坪    ∨
埃塞最具代表性的小黄花是公园绝对不能缺少的内容,尤其是新年    ∨

公园里的木雕,你能看出来一共有几种动物吗?   ∨
卫生间设计也是埃塞风格,顶部摆放的都是多肉    ∨

       大殿有近百年历史,坐落在台基之上,台基上层是埃塞皇帝处理朝政、接待外宾的区域正殿,功能类似金銮殿,革命推翻封建王朝之后用作革命成员会议厅。台基之下的地下室同样在不同时期功能不同,起初为葡萄酒储藏室,红色恐怖时期为关押和迫害前朝封建官僚的监狱。现在,正殿大厅展示着皇帝和皇后的王冠,在大厅侧面分布着五个小展厅,分别展示埃塞的宗教史,动画制作的历史,和自Menelik二世以来统治(执政者)的历史功过。

公园在一块高地之上,远眺亚的斯市区    ∨

       以下人物分别是自亚的斯亚贝巴成为首都之后的历任统治者(执政者),从左到右依次为 :1-Menelik 二世——埃塞俄比亚历史上最伟大的统治者之一,将国土扩张到接近现代的边界,并成功击退第一次意大利入侵,奠定了埃塞在非洲的地位;2-Lij Iyasu——登基但没加冕的皇帝;3-Zewditu——埃塞唯一一位女皇,对比武则天;4-Haile Selassie 一世——埃塞末代皇帝,没能善终,溥仪比他幸运多了;5-Mengistu Haile Mariam——推翻帝制后的军政府执政者,红色恐怖时期;6-Meles Zenawi Asres——推翻独裁军政府后非常著名的总理梅莱斯。

公园几乎没有游客,好不容易等一个人帮我拍一张    ∨

修缮后的宫殿一角,非常有埃塞特色    ∨

传统茅草亭,里边布置成了厨房,色彩艳丽的那个东西是盛放英吉拉饼的厨具,主要特点是美观、透气、防蚊虫。就像我们习惯把刚蒸好的馒头放在竹筐里一样    ∨

下图为Throne Hall, 俗称金銮殿    ∨

金銮殿正厅    ∨

凤冠   ∨

冕冠    ∨

Oromo传统感恩节    ∨

新教在埃塞的发展    ∨

伊斯兰教在埃塞的发展    ∨

       宴会厅建于1898-1899年,起初用于日常宴请,但随着宾客数量不断增加,逐渐只用于重大宗教庆典和加冕仪式。1963年,末代皇帝Haile Selassie为非洲联盟组织(非盟前身)的奠基人举行国宴。2019年起,现任总理阿比利用政治手段在内举办筹款晚宴。

宴会厅正门和门口的草坪    ∨

宴会厅正门的纹饰具有埃塞特色,拍照的时候阳光太刺眼    ∨

宴会厅大厅,这个大厅就是被中资企业调侃吃埃塞版“鸿门宴”的地方,一顿饭500万或1000万比尔    ∨

       团结动物园圈养了非洲特有的长颈鹿、白狮、斑马、狐獴等动物,此外还有一做迷你水族馆。

萌萌哒的狐獴,可爱又机警      ∨

我依然记得几年前专门包车去国家公园看动物,没有看到。现在竟然在市内动物园见到了。。。    ∨

       埃塞各州传统建筑展以现代主义风格向游客展示了各民族传统民居和文化遗产,如拉利贝拉岩石教堂、提格雷石质房屋、Lucy骨骼复制品等。使其成为了解埃塞各民族文化和传统的重要窗口。

现代主义风格的阿姆哈拉民居    ∨

现代主义风格的南方州各民族民居 ,形似大南瓜    ∨

南方州各族人民的日常生活墙画 1    ∨

南方州各族人民的日常生活墙画 2    ∨
提格雷民居,主要突出花岗岩雕刻的完整性和方尖碑图案;此外由于提格雷地区石头多木材少,房子多用石块砌成,结构同下    ∨
阿法尔民居,现代主义风格的远比现实主义的更好看,如果看到真正的阿法尔民居,你会感到震惊    ∨
       
以下为索马里民居    ∨
       
        至此,参观结束。最后献上结束图片。
植物园里最喜欢的一种不知名植物,其实他是草本的    ∨
在公园内远眺亚的斯城区,看到最多的是半成品的大楼,这是正在发展建设中的城市。    ∨

公园出口    ∨

 


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